You can help. They may be eligible to participate in our study that will help scientists search for genetic links to the disease, and potentially help fight it. Learn more. Your maternal haplogroup assignment is based on your mitochondrial DNAwhich you inherited from your mother. Both males and females inherit their mitochondrial DNA and, therefore, their haplogroup assignment from their mothers. Haplogroups are defined by specific sets of shared genetic variation.
These maps reflect human migration over tens of thousands of years, a period in which humans migrated from eastern Africa to inhabit every continent on Earth except Antarctica.
As they spread out geographically, they also diversified genetically. When a genetic variant arises in an individual and is passed down through the maternal lines, it will be present in living descendants. Since members of a haplogroup tend to be found in the same region of the world, your maternal haplogroup can say something about where some of your maternal-line ancestors lived.
Geneticists use global haplogroup distributions to trace significant events in human prehistory, such as the migration of people to the Americas or the expansion of agriculture from the Middle East. In many cases, we can offer accounts of where and when a haplogroup originated.
Maternal haplogroups begin with a capital letter occasionally two that designates a major branch of the mitochondrial DNA tree. That capital letter is often followed by a series of numbers and lower-case letters, each corresponding to a subsequent branch of the tree.
All lineages of a subgroup share one or more mutations, but sometimes there are a few lineages that don't fit into any named subgroup of a haplogroup. Since there isn't a known mutation linking these lineages, they don't get their own subgroup. Sometimes new research leads to the discovery of mutations that link several of the "star" lineages. When that happens the lineages get a new name and lose their "star" designation. Maternal haplogroups are named with sequences of letters and numbers that reflect the structure of the tree and how the branches relate to one another.
The framework used to identify different haplogroups, and how they relate, is called a phylogenetic tree. To see your haplogroup highlighted in a phylogenetic tree, click " Scientific Details " located near the top of the page. At the left edge of the tree is the most recent common female-line ancestor MRCA of all living people. Though she was one of perhaps thousands of women alive at the time, only the diverse branches of her haplogroup L have survived to today.
The story of your maternal line begins with her. To the right are her descendants. Each major branch of each tree is named with a letter, and deeper branches within the tree are labeled with sequences of numbers and letters. Each branch is thousands or tens of thousands of years old.
You may notice that some haplogroups are solid circles, while others are not. Haplogroups with additional subgroups have solid circles located under the haplogroup label; click the solid circle to reveal any subgroups. There may be additional expandable haplogroups, so keep an eye out for more solid circles. Clicking on the tree and dragging enables you to move the tree around to view different sections.
Haplogroup is the term scientists use to describe a group of mitochondrial maternal haplogroups or Y-chromosome paternal haplogroup sequences that are more closely related to one another than to others. The term haplogroup is a combination of haplotype and group. In this context, haplotype refers either to the DNA sequence of one's mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited from one's mother, or to the DNA sequence of one's Y chromosome, which is passed from fathers to their sons.
Due to their unusual pattern of inheritance, the mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome contain information about your maternal and paternal lines, respectively. Maternal haplogroups are assigned by detecting certain genetic variants unique to each haplogroup.Some contemporary notable figures have made their test results public in the course of news programs about this topic. These are results from ancient samples of the person or reputed remains of the person.
In the body of Jesse James was exhumed and his DNA compared to that of two known living relatives; he was matched with each [ according to whom? The skeleton excavated from the Cheddar Gorge is in haplogroup U5a. His results matched those of a cousin, Count Nikolai Trubetskoy. Because mtDNA is carried through the direct female line, some researchers have identified the haplotype of historic persons by testing descendants in their direct female line. In the case of males, their mother's direct female lineage descendants are tested.
On 4 FebruaryUniversity of Leicester researchers announced that there was an mtDNA match between that of a skeleton exhumed in Leicester suspected of belonging to Richard III and that of Joy Ibsen's son, Michael Ibsen, and a second unnamed direct maternal line descendant.
The following are contemporary individuals who have had mtDNA results publicized:.
A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages
During an interview with Dr. Tutankhamun 's Y-DNA haplogroup was not published in the academic paper. Confirmation of this genetic profile requires testing of a known relative. The sample was tested at two laboratories with the same results.
Reported researchers: "Five STR loci [from the sample taken from the head] match the alleles found in Louis XVI, while another locus shows an allele that is just one mutation step apart. Taking into consideration that the partial Y-chromosome profile is extremely rare in modern human databases, we concluded that both males could be paternally related.
In fact the Gediminids and Rurikids are actually very distant cousins, sharing a common ancestor circa 2, years ago. DNA purported to be from Genghis Khan does not have the benefit of near and easily documented lineages. A distinct 'modal' result centers today on Mongolia. Most ancient ancestor known was Humphrey Harvey —, Kent, England. Decorte said that permission from the Russian government to make a conclusive analysis of the jawbone of Adolf Hitler, or from the bloodstained cloth of the sofa where he committed suicide would put an end to the speculations, but that had not been granted.
Mulders confirmed the misinterpretation of his account with the following statement to Family Tree DNA: " I never wrote that Hitler was a Jew, or that he had a Jewish grandfather.
I only wrote that Hitler's haplogroup is E1b1b, being more common among Berbers, Somalian people and Jews than among overall Germans. This, in order to convey that he was not exactly what during the Third Reich would have been called 'Aryan.Im a K2 and have no idea where i come from. From my father's side im R1a. Unfortunately my mother's parents died very young so we dont know much about that part of our genealogical tree.
Im born in Poland, now living in Norway: Cheers, cousins of Oetzi :. I am also a K2 and my mother's ancestors came from Wales.
T - Y Haplogroup T
Also a cousin of Oetzi the Iceman. Another K2. Not finding much specific info on K2. Jane, if you are on sometime, I would like to talk to you. I am also a Levy, and just found out that I was adopted Jan. Of course he and I had no idea, but found out all the relatives knew of it. I wrote to her and she promised to help me locate my family. She kept that promise and has a friend in Belgium, who speaks French and was able to obtain my birth mother, Jenny Levy's French birth certificate.
I was also surprised to find only a very small amount of Native American 1. I'm wondering if anyone has any history or knowledge about French and French Canadians of Jewish origin migrating to Canada. Some of the early Native Americans along the Northeast coast of America may have have actually come from N. Europe prior to the voyages of Columbus.
These Native Americans may have had a primitive culture, but as they were predominantly white, they soon blended in with the new European settlers after Columbus. Additionally, I believe I've read on the Internet that there were a lot of Jews who came to the New World to mine for gold several hundred years ago.
Hi Rosemarie I have been doing ancestral and dna research and knew we were French and First Nations back to the s. The Jews were variably persecuted in Europe between and s and many were forced to convert to Catholicism under pain of torture or death. Many converted to the St. Denis Catholic group, which was involved with the coronations of the French Kings. In Ojibway legends, it's said our Anishinaabek ancestors originally came from an island beyond the east coast Beyond that Perhaps your ancestors followed similar routes.
Post a Comment. Like thousands of other genealogists, I swabbed my cheek at a genealogy society meeting several years ago in a project conducted by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation SMGF. Today, I received my invitation via email to view my mtDNA results. I'm not overly surprised of course. The chart above is the distribution of the K haplogroup for mitochondrial DNA. The web site says this about the K haplogroup : "Mitochondrial haplogroup K is a sub-branch of lineage U.
Ancestors in this haplogroup expanded into Europe about 25, years ago, just before the last Ice Age. In particular, four Ashkenazi founding lineages were recently identified — three of these lineages were within haplogroup K. These four lineages underwent major expansions throughout Europe within the past millennium.
However, if there are persons with exact matches of the mtDNAthen it is possible that there is an mtDNA match within the last years or so. GeneTree is a social networking site - you can invite family members to join and view the tree, add information and media, and see the DNA results. Labels: DNAgeneticsMy genealogy research. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom.The origins of Ashkenazi Jews remain highly controversial.
Like Judaism, mitochondrial DNA is passed along the maternal line. Its variation in the Ashkenazim is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders have been difficult to trace to a source. Furthermore, most of the remaining minor founders share a similar deep European ancestry.
Thus the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Levant, as commonly supposed, nor recruited in the Caucasus, as sometimes suggested, but assimilated within Europe. These results point to a significant role for the conversion of women in the formation of Ashkenazi communities, and provide the foundation for a detailed reconstruction of Ashkenazi genealogical history.mtDNA Haplogroup K
The origins of Ashkenazi Jews—the great majority of living Jews—remain highly contested and enigmatic to this day 12345678910 The Ashkenazim are Jews with a recent ancestry in central and Eastern Europe, in contrast to Sephardim with an ancestry in Iberia, followed by exile afterMizrahim who have always resided in the Near East and North African Jews comprising both Sephardim and Mizrahim.
There were Diaspora communities throughout Mediterranean Europe and the Near East for several centuries prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE Common Eraand some scholars suggest that their scale implies proselytism and wide-scale conversion, although this view is very controversial 9 The Ashkenazim are thought to have emerged from dispersals north into the Rhineland of Mediterranean Jews in the early Middle Ages, although there is little evidence before the twelfth century 5 After expulsions from Western Europe between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, the communities are thought to have expanded eastwards, especially in Poland, Lithuania and then Russia.
This seems an ideal problem to tackle with genetic analysis, but after decades of intensive study a definitive answer remains elusive. Although we might imagine that such an apparently straightforward admixture question might be readily addressed using genome-wide autosomal markers, recent studies have proposed contradictory conclusions.
An important reason for disagreement is that the Ashkenazim have undergone severe founder effects during their history, drastically altering the frequencies of genetic markers and distorting the relationship with their ancestral populations. This problem can be resolved by reconstructing the relationships genealogically, rather than relying on allele frequencies, using the non-recombining marker systems: the paternally inherited male-specific part of the Y chromosome MSY and the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA mtDNA.
This kind of analysis can be very powerful, because nesting of particular lineages within clusters from a particular geographical region allows us to pinpoint the source for those lineages, by applying the parsimony principle.
The maternal line has also been studied, and indeed Ashkenazi mtDNAs are highly distinctive, but they have proved difficult to assign to a source population 12 Some progress has been made by targeting whole-mtDNA genomes or mitogenomes, which provide much higher genealogical and therefore geographical and chronological resolution than the control-region sequences used previously—although the far larger control-region database remains an invaluable guide to their geographic distribution.
Using this approach, Behar et al.Relative to its age, the internal structure of K2 is extremely complex, and subclades of it are carried by males native to regions including AustralasiaOceaniaSoutheast AsiaSouth AsiaEast AsiaCentral Asiathe AmericasEuropeand the Horn of Africa. Many of its branches are very common, the most numerically important being R in Europe and South Asia and O in East and Southeast Asia as well as recent immigrants to other continents.
Haplogroups N and Qwhile they are less common overall, are also very widespread, in northern Eurasia and the Americas respectively. M and S are almost entirely restricted to Oceania and eastern Indonesiawhere they occur at high frequency. Rare subclades outside of these major lineages are known mainly from Island Southeast Asia including the Andaman Islands and the Philippines. In addition, K-Y, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M, has been found in three living individuals from India.
According to Karafet et al. As ofthe phylogeny of haplogroup K2 is as follows:. At the level of highly-derived subclades, K2 is almost universal in some modern Eurasian and Native American populations.
K2c, K2d, and K2e are extremely rare subhaplogroups that are found in specific parts of South and Southeast Asia. K2e Mwhich has been found in two modern cases from South India was provisionally named "pre-NO" among other namesas it was believed initially to be ancestral to K2a NO.
However, it was later found to be a primary branch of Haplogroup K2 K-M and a sibling of K2a; the new clade was renamed K2e. This posed a problem, because there was no way to disambiguate between "K xLT " in the broad and narrow meanings of the term. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Haplogroup K-M This article is about the Y-chromosome haplogroup K2. Bibcode : PNAS. Mendez, et al. Retrieved Karafet, Fernando L. Mendez, Herawati Sudoyo, J.
Stephen Lansing and Michael F.It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8b and it has an estimated age of c. It was also found in a significant group of Palestinian Arabs. This high percentage points to a genetic bottleneck occurring some generations ago. The average of European K frequency is 5. K appears to be highest in the Morbihan It has long been known that some techniques of farming, together with associated plant and animal breeds, spread into Europe from the Near East.
The evidence from ancient DNA suggests that the Neolithic culture spread by human migration. It cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade K1a, K1b or K1c. This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup K subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation  and subsequent published research. A study involving Caucasian patients showed that individuals classified as haplogroup J or K demonstrated a significant decrease in risk of Parkinson's disease versus individuals carrying the most common haplogroup, H.
On an 18 November broadcast of the Today Showduring an interview with Dr. NYU Press, Aug 1, Google eBook . From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core.
Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup U5 - mtDNA Test Results for Members
Jump to: navigationsearch. See also: List of genetic results derived from historical figures. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in Request account. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history. This page was last modified on 10 Augustat This article's content derived from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia See original source.
Its age is between 16, and 25, years Behar et al. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build I am working on changing results over to build The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
Skip to content Summary Age: 21, American journal of human genetics90 4 Fan, L. MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion11 2 Mitochondrion13 4 Van Oven, M. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation.